Formulation and evaluation of pioglitazone microspheres


  • Rajagopal Rajaguru Formulation Research and Development – Manager, Cure Afya Pharmaceutical Ltd, Plot 69, Malindi Road, Kimbiji, Kigamboni District, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, P.O Box 17101, East Africa



Nonprescription drugs, OTC drugs, OTC medications, Over-the-counter medicines, Self-care, Self-medication


The current study focuses on the formulation, development, and in vitro testing of pologlitazone microspheres containing guar gum and chitosan as naturally occurring polysaccharides that delay release. Nine formulations were created by altering the chitosan and guar gum ratios, using span-85 as an emulsifier as well as glutaraldehyde as a chemical cross linking agent. The microspheres were assessed in terms of particle size, encapsulation effectiveness, drug loading capacity, and in vitro drug release tests. The average particle size ranged from 30.2 mm (PP 1) to 36.5 mm (PP 2). There was a range of 0.45 to 0.78 in the swelling index. Microspheres smooth surfaces were found by SEM investigation. In order to verify that there are no chemical interactions between the medication and the polymer and to understand the structure of microspheres, differential scanning calorimetry as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed. At 10 hours, the optimised batch PP 1 released 97.45% using phosphate buffer pH7.4 as a dissolving media. In terms of release kinetics, the optimised formula's data were best fitted with the Higuchi model (r2= 0.671) and demonstrated zero order release (r2= 0.980) via a non-Fickian diffusion mechanism.


Download data is not yet available.




How to Cite

Rajaguru, R. (2024). Formulation and evaluation of pioglitazone microspheres. Future Journal of Pharmaceuticals and Health Sciences, 4(2), 26–31.



Original Articles