International Journal of Experimental and Biomedical Research <div> <img style="width: 100%;" src="" /></div> <p align="justify">International Journal of Experimental and Biomedical Research (Int. J.Exp. Biomed. Res.) sponsored by Pharma Springs Publication is established in the year 2021 with people from various avenues of the pharmacy profession. Int. J.Exp. Biomed. Res. is completely devoted to publications related to Experimental and Biomedical Research. Int. J.Exp. Biomed. Res. will be published quarterly. The journal publishes original research work that contributes significantly to further the scientific knowledge in Experimental and Biomedical Research.</p> en-US International Journal of Experimental and Biomedical Research A Case Report of Acute Liver Failure due to Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis <p>Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an uncommon ailment which can be brought about by an essential or obtained issue of uncontrolled safe reaction. Liver injury seems to be a typical intricacy of HLH; nonetheless, HLH introducing as intense liver disappointment has seldom been accounted for in grown-ups. A 36-year-elderly person was conceded to our emergency clinic with queasiness and weakness enduring for 1 and half months straight as well as&nbsp; jaundice regarding 1 week. She used to have hyperthermia initially of infectious disease. At reassurance she used to have severe liver injury with disguise etiology. At last, a bone marrow colonoscopy uncovered hemophagocytic cell lines, but she was determined to also be have HLH. Nonetheless, the hepatic ability of the client rotted away and she at last passed on of multi organ disappointment.&nbsp;</p> Boini Meghana Chimata Manisha Shaik Sana Bhura Akhila Jettegalla Sandhya Rani Naragoni Shireesha Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-07 2022-02-07 1 1 14 18 Case Report on a Dimorphic Fungal Disease - Blastomycosis <p>Blastomycosis is a dimorphic fungal disease caused by the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. The fungus is found in soils and water, and it can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or inhaling spores from the air. The disease may cause fever, cough, fatigue, headache, muscle pain and joint pain. The symptoms vary depending on whether the infection has been localized or disseminated throughout the body. Localized infection can progress to disseminated infection if not treated early enough. A case study of 18 years old female is admitted in area hospital with symptoms like fever, cough and weight loss and fever with chills and night sweats who had a dry cough or expectoration. The diagnosis of this disease is made by taking a blood test or skin biopsy from the infected area which will show up in the laboratory as positive for blastomycosis. She was given an antifungal medication called amphotericin B intravenously, which helped her to recover from the infection.</p> Masinamoni Sravani Mudedla Hasini Patha Bhargavi Eluduti Himabindu Alli Sowjanya Nakarakanti Navya Copyright (c) 2022 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 1 1 19 22 Evaluation of the Use of Pneumonia Specific Antibiotics in the COVID - 19 Pandemic Situation at Glodok Surya Pharmacy Jakarta <p style="background: white; margin: 0cm 0cm 7.6pt 0cm;"><span style="color: #444444; background: white;">The COVID-19 pandemic dominantly affects the use of antibiotics typical of pneumonia in particular at the Surya Glodok Pharmacy which is located in the trading area, Kota Tua, West Jakarta. The present study attempts to evaluate the use of pneumonia-specific antibiotics used during the COVID-19 pandemic at the Surya Glodok Pharmacy, Jakarta. 72 samples were taken retrospectively who met the inclusion criteria (complete prescriptions included gender and age and used pneumonia-specific antibiotics, or were excluded from pulmonary specialists or pulmonary hospitals, but not with comorbid tuberculosis). Data analysis was cross-sectional using SPSS software using one-way ANOVA analysis. There are 7 types of specific pneumonia antibiotics, namely: azithromycin (30.6%), ciprofloxacin (26.4%), levofloxacin (16.7%), amoxicillin plus clavulanate (11%), doxycycline (4%), moxifloxacin (2%), and cefixime plus azithromycin (2%). Patients' age was divided into 4 groups, namely: age &lt;18 years (1.4%), age 18-40 years (29.2%), age 41-60 years (62.5%) and age &gt; 60 years (6.9%). Gender was dominated by 51.39% female and 48.61% male. The most selected antibiotic was the azithromycin as macrolide group, dominated by the female in the middle class (productive age) with high activity outside the home.</span></p> Diana L R Merry J Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-19 2022-01-19 1 1 1 5 Evaluation of the Quality of Life of Chronic Kidney Failure Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis at General Hospital in Jakarta <p>Hemodialysis (HD) is an ongoing treatment given to chronic kidney disease patients as a substitute for kidney function so it is important to assess the quality of life among these patients. Quality of life (QoL) is one of the parameters to see the improvement of HD treatment in HD patients. To evaluate the QoL of chronic kidney disease patients undergoing HD at General Hospital in Jakarta using the Indonesian version of kidney disease QoL–short form 24 questionnaire. This type of research is descriptive analytics with a cross-sectional design. Consecutive sampling is used to select patients based on inclusion criteria. This study involved 116 patients who had inclusion criteria in the Hemodialysis Room of General Hospital in Jakarta. HD patients who have a poor QoL category 38 people (32.8%), enough category 73 people (62.9%), and good category 5 people (4.3%). Female patients are the most patients undergoing hemodialysis as much as, patients over the age of 45 years (60.3%), patients who work (87.9%), patients who have low levels of education (82.8%), patients who have undergone HD for less than 5 years (82.8%) and patients with hypertension (84.5%). HD patients who have a good QoL are patients over the age of 45 years (60%), patients of the female sex (80%), patients who work (100%), patients with higher education levels (60%), patients who have undergone HD &lt; 5 years (60%) and patients with diabetes and hypertension (60%). There are six components have a mean and standard deviation (SD) lower than the standard form; cognitive function (19.22±18.88), quality of social interaction (17.24±10.33), sleep quality (39.05±9.21), emotional well-being (32.64±8.54), emotional role (28.73±35.13), and social functioning (48.92±7.65). HD patients at General Hospital in Jakarta have a sufficient quality of life category. The component scores of cognitive function, quality of social interaction, quality of sleep, emotional well-being, emotional role, and social functioning were lower than standard scores.</p> Diana LR Ira CS Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-28 2022-01-28 1 1 6 13 Formulation and Evaluation of Nitrofurantoin Microspheres Loaded in Hard Gelatin Capsule <p>In side this task a kind attempt has been made to formulate and evaluate Microspheres of the drug Nitrofurantoin in Hard Gelatin Capsule by orifice ionic gelation method to polymer combinations of sodium alginate, carbopol and Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose. The main objective of formulating the Microspheres of Nitrofurantoin in Hard Gelatin Capsule was to enhance the bioavailability, which leads to reducing the frequency of administration in order to be able to improve patient conformance. Different quantities of polymer combinations of sodium alginate, carbopol and Sodium CMC were used to prepare five formulations. Prepared Microspheres of Nitrofurantoin were evaluated for % yeild, carr’s index, angle of repose, particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, % moisture loss, stability and swelling properties. The Fourier transform infrared analysis was done to conduct to prove the opportunity of interaction of chemical bonds between drug and polymer. The DSC thermograms studies of Plain drug were performed to verify the presence of impurities in drug. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for particle shape and surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. In vitro dissolution test carried out by using USP type I apparatus at 37 ± 0.5<sup>o</sup>C in 900 ml of phosphate buffer solution pH 6.8. Formulation F1 and F3 showed a release in a consistent manner. That was expected the release to keep going by still 4 so much hours. Overall a drug release sustained to 12 hrs is achievable. The formulation F1 and F3 showed the best dissolution study it reveals that these formulations have higher dissolution rate. There is scope for the further study and development of Microspheres in Hard Gelatin Capsule by using the combination of these polymers.</p> Madhuri Reddy M Gundala Deepika Meesala Simon Pothireddy Bharat Golam Sofiullah SK Addakula Varalaxmi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 1 1 23 29 A Cross-Sectional Study of Coronavirus Disease-2019 Deaths in Indonesia Based on Sociodemography <p>The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus, causing pneumonia with symptoms such as fever, cough, and dyspnea. The COVID-19 virus can cause death. This study aims to evaluate the cause of mortality among COVID-19 patients based on sociodemography. This research was conducted using a questionnaire to find out and enrich the information obtained through the community, so that the data obtained can be described. The method used was descriptive analytic with cross-sectional approach. The sampling technique was carried out by convenience sampling on 60 patients who died of COVID-19 in Indonesia and all the participants filled the informed consent before filled the google form. Ethical approval was obtained before conducting this study. Based on the result in this study, the male was 41 patients, and the female was 19 patients. The education level of the majority of patients was senior high school (42%). In terms of occupation, unemployed was predominant (25 patients). Of the 25 patients had hypertensive/diabetic, and 40 patients had severe illness. Based on the length of stay, most of these patients were admitted for around two weeks. Conclusion of this study is that the average cause of death for COVID-19 patients can be influenced because they are &gt;60 years old, the male gender has more deaths due to COVID-19, and the history of illness the patients have.</p> Diana Laila Ramatillah Destriyani Muhammad Junaid Farrukh Afriana Copyright (c) 2022 2022-03-28 2022-03-28 1 1 30 33