Review on Pregnancy Testing Kit Analysis

Authors

Abstract

Healthcare professionals and the general public both often use pregnancy tests. The measurement of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) in urine is a prerequisite for all tests. None of the other pregnancy-specific agents that have been suggesting as pregnancy tests can match the sensitivity and practicality of the immunoassay of HCG. Additionally, ultrasound detection is less sensitive than HCG analysis. The latest generation of tests is based on monoclonal antibodies to the beta-subunit of HCG; this feature allows for outstanding sensitivity because it essentially precludes the chance of cross-reaction with pituitary luteinizing hormone (L.H.).It is crucial to understand that the 'beta-subunit' antibody reacts with both intact HCG, which constitutes the majority of pregnancy serum, and beta-subunit fragments (beta-core), which include the majority form in the urine. Non-pregnant persons' blood and urine both have trace quantities of HCG. Around 6-8 days after fertilization, HCG from the implantation blastocyst first manifests in the mother's blood; levels quickly increase to peak at 7-10 weeks. Urine may show positive findings with most modern pregnancy test kits (sensitivity 25 units per liter) 3–4 days after implantation; by seven days (the time of the anticipated period), 98% of results will be positive. One week following the missed period, a negative test almost always indicates that the lady is not pregnant. False positive test results brought on by interfering elements are highly improbable with today's test kit generation. It is unlikely that new tests or alternative technology will be able to achieve the degree of sensitivity and specificity that pregnancy tests have currently attained.

Keywords:

HCG, ELISA, Pregnancy Tests

Published

2022-10-12

Issue

Section

Review Article

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