Review article on chronic kidney disease
Keywords:CKD, GFR, ESRD, Dialysis, treatment
The hallmarks of chronic kidney/renal disease (CKD) include patient urogenital abnormalities, anatomical abnormalities, or lowered excretory renal function that may indicate the absence of functioning nephrons. The majority of CKD cases have increased mortality and cardiovascular complaint threat. The difficulty in carrying out renal replacement therapy for those with end-stage renal complaints is an issue far and wide around the globe. Low nephron count at birth, nephron loss with aging, and acute or chronic kidney damage brought on by toxic exposures or illnesses are risk factors for the development and progression of CKD (for illustration, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus). Cases with CKD are managed with an emphasis on early discovery or prevention, treatment of the underlying cause to decelerate development, and attention to secondary processes that fuel continued nephron loss. The pillars of remedy include lowering blood pressure, blocking the renin-angiotensin system, and accepting actions adapted to a case's particular condition. Diagnosis and therapy are necessary for CKD consequences such as secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, and anemia, which impact cardiovascular health and quality of life.
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